Information Systems Management are applying computer-base for managing information in organizations for management roles such as interpersonal roles, informational roles and decision based roles. Information Systems Management compound of theories of computer science and management science. These theories build systems and program utilization. Normally, MIS are integrated systems of users and machines (computers) with aiming to provide organizations’ information for operation, management and decision-making. The 5Cs are process to change data into information. They consist of capturing information, conveying, creating, cradling and communicating.
Information Systems Management
The information systems management must be accuracy and verification, completeness, timeliness and relevance. Information Systems Management can be divided by using of each organization level like operational – level systems, knowledge – level systems, management – level systems and strategic – level systems.
Data mean any facts of persons, objects and places that are collected from observations, questionnaires, and measurements. Data can be context and figures which are true. False context and figures are useless like trash that nobody needs it. If an organization applies false data, it may get a wrong way or it can not solve a problem. Sometimes, we call data as raw data because they’re unused or inappropriate for users.
Information Systems Management
When data have been recorded, classified, and organized, related or interpreted within a framework so that meaning emerges, they become information. There are activitiesinvolved in turning data into information, and these activities are known as process. In briefly, information means outputs of processed data. Therefore, users can apply it. For example, an executive require total sales of each product in the last year as a chart. Because he need summarized data for planning sales (It’s easier and quicker to understand the chart information than raw data of each product). In another example, teachers are grading each student by using total scores. The figure 1 illustrates the data and information.
Process is procedures that convert data into required information. In technical, these procedures are fast done by a computer (both hardware and software). We can select a appropriated computer program for process. There are many computer programs to process like word processing, spreadsheet and database management system. They organize and manipulate data and information. The process tasks are 5 activities
- Capturing. This processing is originally obtaining information by using IT tools like a mouse, keyboard and bar code reader. Simplify, it’s inputting data at the original point. Selecting IT tools for inputting depends on capturing information and/or commands and its form.
- Conveying. This processing is showing the most useful information by using IT tools like a screen, printer, speaker and monitor. Simplify, it’s outputting data. Selecting IT tools for outputting depends on forms of users’ needs.
- Creating. This processing is creating new information by using IT tools like CPU and RAM. This is the most important process in 5Cs. It’s done by the central processing unit (CPU) executing software instruction and interact all the other hardware devices. The random-access memory (RAM) or an internal memory is temporary storage of on-working information, on-working application software and operating system.
- Cradling. This processing is storing information for a later time by using IT tools like a hard disk, CD-ROM and DVD. It’s permanently storing information which users can change or erase. Selecting IT tools for storage depends on users’ need for updating and information size.
- Communicating. This processing is distributing information to other people or other location by using IT tools like a modem, a satellite and a digital pager. When we say communicating, it concerns telecommunications technologies. One of them is a computer network. It’s connecting at least two computers to communicate like sharing information, software, peripheral devices and/or processing power.
Information Systems Management attributes comprise of accuracy and verification, completeness, timeliness and relevance.
- Accuracy and Verification. The obtained information must come from facts by using procedures like observations, questionnaires and measurements. The expectation may give false data. When you get facts, it’s processed to be appropriating for implementation or users’ needs. For example, an executive requires information for making decision. If information is wrong, an organization will get damage. Information has to have references, so they let users tracing. Actually, users will get confident to use information, if they know the sources of information.
- Completeness. Users have to receive completed information. Especially, executives need completed information for making decision.
- Timeliness. The best information has to be always updated, not outdated.
- Therefore, users can apply it for present situation. Particularly, business organizations need updated data for competition. The outdated data can take disadvantages of any business organizations.
- Relevance. The obtained information has to be related to users’ activities. Users have not to get overloaded information.
In the past, business competitions are not intensive. An executive could wait for getting enough information, then, he made decision. Nowadays, information is considered as valued property of an organization. It can maintain organization competitiveness. If an organization quickly and precisely gets information, the executive can quickly and precisely make decision or solve a problem. As a result, the organization can stand in intensive competition. Information systems A system means a set of elements which are interactive by operating as a group to meet a purpose. A system may consist of people, tools, equipments, supplies and methodologies for finishing the same purpose. For example, a supply chain system has a purpose for delivering products to end customers.
Now, we can conclude that an information system means all components involving with getting information which is started from finding data, inserting data, storing date, processing data, storing information, distributing and showing information following users requirements. Nowadays, information systems are computer-based. So, they involve computer hardware and software technology. As a result, computers
are tools for information systems. They can effectively store, process and distribute data and information. Therefore, an information system has 6 components. There are hardware, software, telecommunications, people, process and data or information. As you see figure 1, information is output of information systems. It’s used for 3 management roles like interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles.
Information Systems Management
In 1916, Henri Fayol presented the classical model of management. There are 5 management functions such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. However, this model is unsatisfactory for indicating all management tasks. Therefore, Henry Mintzberg proposed 3 categories of management roles called the behavioral model. From analyzing managers’ day-to-day behavior, Henry Mintzberg concluded management roles to 3 categories consisting of interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. Interpersonal Roles. Management tasks involve interaction with people to lead, motivate, counsel and support. It can be supported by information systems like electronic mail, presentation graphics, video teleconferencing and voice mail. Informational Roles. Management tasks involve receiving and sending information to communicate to other people in an organization. This communication can make an organization meeting its goals and objectives. It can be supported by information systems like decision support systems and executive information system. Decisional Roles. Management tasks involve initiating planning, controlling, allocation and negotiating to solve problems and adjust an organization following fluctuated environment. It can be supported by information systems like decision support systems and executive information system.
Information systems are created for 3 categories of management roles called management information systems (MIS). MIS support many tasks in organizations. As a result, those tasks get more effective and efficiency.